Description: The victim is dangled upside-down by their ankles, sometimes accompanied by a flash of light (this may be a variant of the spell).
Seen/Mentioned: Apparently invented by the Half-Blood Prince; it is a non-verbal-only spell (although it is whispered by Hermione in 1997). Harry Potter learnt it by reading the notes written by the Half-Blood Prince. He used it on Ron. The previous year, Harry had seen (through the Pensieveused by Severus Snape) his father, James Potter, use the spell against Professor Snape. In the Order of the Phoenix film, Luna Lovegood somehow uses this against a Death Eater, although she speaks it, and the spell's name is unknown to any students until Half-Blood Prince.
Etymology: Latin levare, "raise" and corpus, "body".
Seen/Mentioned: Harry used the spell in 1996 to counteract Levicorpus he had inadvertently cast on Ron.
Etymology: Latin liberare, "to free", and corpus, "body".
Notes: It is not clear why Levicorpus has a specific counter-spell, and is not neutralized by simply using Finite Incantatem, although this could be due to the fact that Snape invented the spell and therefore made it irreversible except by its specific counter-curse.
Description: The spell is always used with the name of a target, at which the wand is pointed (e.g. "Locomotor Trunk!"). The spell causes the named object to rise in the air and move around at the will of the caster.
Description: This curse was stored in Salazar Slytherin's Locket. When the locket is opened, a cloud of dark matter blasts back anything standing by the now opened locket, like a shockwave. Whoever is chosen to break the Locket, the curse will taunt the person with his/her fears, wants, and love. This goes away if the locket is broken.
Seen/Mentioned: This curse activated when Harry and Ron were going to destroy the Locket in 1997.
Etymology: English locomotion, "movement" + Latinmortis, "of death".
Notes: It is unclear whether or how this spell is related to the Locomotor spell. It could, however, be that the curse "locks" any part of the body in accordance to where it is pointed, or moves the body into a position of the caster's choosing whilst placing them into an immobile state. It is possible that Draco had pointed his wand at Neville and the curse "locked" his legs together.
Etymology: Derived from two words; the Latin lumen, meaning "light", and the Latin word for "sun", which in its accusative case is "solem".
Notes: It is possible that the quality of the light is on the warmer solar end of the spectrum; Considering the known uses that the spell has been put to, it isn't that much of a stretch to presume that the spell is used to conjure Sunlight.
Etymology: Latin mors, "death", and mordere, meaning "to bite" (or its French derivative mordre); this would appear to be associated with the name of Lord Voldemort's followers, the Death Eaters. The English murdermight also contribute.
Notes: A possible translation might be "take a bite out of death", a fitting phrase for Death Eaters.
Description: Turns off the light produced by Lumos.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1994, Harry Potter and Hermione Granger used this spell to turn off their wand-lights in the Shrieking Shack. Used in 1998 when Harry was in the passage beneath the Whomping Willow which leads to the Shrieking Shack. Lumos's power can be arranged so that a powerful wizard can make the charm illuminate intensely or to the wizards liking by loudness of incantation. For example "LUMOS!!!" would be powerful and "lumos" would be weaker. Also used by Harry Potter in 1998 to turn off the light so he could hide the Marauder's Map from Severus Snape.
Notes: The above instance in book five only reveals that the Obliteration Charm can remove footprints. There is no explanation as to what effect it can have on other things. It could possibly destroy things, according to its name.
Description: Used to hide a memory of a particular event.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in 1993 when used by Gilderoy Lockhart on Harry and Ron; the spell backfired due to a faulty wand, costing Lockhart most of his own memory. Also, Hermione Granger used this spell to wipe her parents memories in 1997. Again, it was used in 1997 when Hermione Granger used the spell on 2 Death Eaters who had followed Harry, Ron, and Hermione after their escape from Bill Weasley's and Fleur Delacour's wedding.
Etymology: Latin oblivisci, "forget". The spell is most often used against Muggles who have seen something of the Wizarding world.
Notes: Memory Charms are confirmed on J.K. Rowling's website to have been developed by a witch named Mnemone Radford, who became the Ministry's first Obliviator. The Ministry of Magic employees assigned to modifying the memories of Muggles are called Obliviators. The charm can be broken by powerful magic, or extreme duress, as Lord Voldemort was able to torture Bertha Jorkins into remembering details that Barty Crouch Sr had forced her to forget using the charm. In this case, it was also shown that if the charm is too powerful, it can cause the target to develop a bad memory. This spell differs from the False Memory Charm.
Description: Makes objects permanently stay in place.
Seen/Mentioned: First mentioned in 1995, when Sirius Black suspected that his mother's painting was fixed to the wall with such a Charm. It is implied that the portrait in the Muggle Prime Minister's office also has such a charm on it.
Notes: It is never said whether the charm prevents the object from being removed by cutting away the section of wall. The incantation could be gluten sempra, meaning glue forever, or adher sempra, which means stick forever.
Suggested Etymology: English pesky meaning "annoying", English pixie meaning "a supernatural being", English pester meaning "to annoy", English no for negative and English me for the first person pronoun.
Notes: It is not known if the spell works or not. It also suspiciously sounds like "Pesky pixie pester no me."
Note: This spell may be an invention of Hermione Granger; it is unclear in the Goblet of Fire text whether she invented it herself or found it through research. Given that the incantation is English (whereas almost all other mentioned spells have incantations based on Latin or other old languages) and that none of the other champions of the Tournament seem to use the spell, it seems likely that Hermione invented the spell.
Etymology: Latin porta, meaning "gate", or portare, meaning "to carry" (as in to carry the caster or target to another location). There is a Latin word portus, meaning "harbour", but it is inappropriate in this context.
Notes: Portkeys were first seen in 1994 as a means for Harry, Hermione, and the Weasleys to go to theQuidditch World Cup. However, the spell used in its creation was not seen until 1995.
Description: Causes the echo (a shadow or image) of the last spell cast by a wand to emanate from it.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Amos Diggory in 1994 to discover the last spell cast by Harry's wand after it was found in the hands of Winky, a house-elf.
Etymology: Latin prior, "previous", and incantare, "to speak a spell" (past participle incantatum).
Notes: The nature of the "echo" depends on the original spell. The echo of a conjuring spell, for example, is the object conjured; the echo of the Cruciatus Curse is the screaming of the victim; the echo of an Avada Kedavra curse is the image of its victim.
Notes(2): Amos Diggory used this spell to find out if Harry's wand (held by Winky, Bartemius Crouch's house elf) cast the Dark Mark.
Notes(3): Apparently the spell is cumulative, with the user able to go further back and see spells that the wand performed after the latest spell. Harry suggests this in 1997. Hermione does not contradict his claim, suggesting this is true.
Description: Causes copies of an object to be remotely affected by changes made to the original.
Seen/Mentioned: First used in 1995. Hermione Granger put the charm on a number of fake Galleons. Instead of the serial number around the edge of the coin, the time and date of the next meeting of Dumbledore's Armyappeared. It is possible that this charm is used on the Death Eaters' Dark Marks.
Etymology: The English word Protean derives from Proteus, a god in Greek Mythology. Proteus was a shape-shifter, able to take many forms. As a result, the word Protean has come to refer to versatility, flexibility, or an ability to assume many forms. "Protean" is also similar to "protein", derived from the same root, meaning a variable, flexible substance which forms strong bonds between its constituent parts.
Notes: On Hermione's fake galleons, when the date changes, the coin becomes hot, alerting the owner to look at the coin. This may not be a feature of the original charm. It may be a Flagrante Curse, when the Protean Charm changes the coin the curse may activate. It would seem from this that you can decide what the effects on the charmed objects are. Possibly by saying something along the lines of "Protean flagrante." although this is just speculation
Notes (2): The Protean Charm is a N.E.W.T. standard charm, according to Terry Boot, who is incredulous that Hermione can perform the spell even though she is only in her fifth year (N.E.W.T.s are taken in the seventh year at Hogwarts).
Description: The Shield Charm causes minor to moderate jinxes, curses, and hexes to rebound upon the attacker.
Seen/Mentioned: First seen in 1995, in which Harry is taught this spell by Hermione in preparation for the third task in the Triwizard Tournament. Albus Dumbledore uses a similar spell which reverses the construction of glass back into sand when Voldemort sent shards of glass to try to stab Dumbledore. Fred and George Weasley enchanted hats they dubbed "shield hats" with this spell in 1997.
Etymology: Latin protego, "I cover" or "I protect".
Notes: The original description of this spell states that it rebounds minor jinxes to the caster. However, it is shown in the books that it can also be used to reflect or lessen the effects of more powerful spells, depending on the skill of the caster. In 1998, it is also shown to be able to create a sort of force-field across an area, and is used frequently to prevent two participants in an argument from reaching each other.
Etymology: English reduce, "to shrink". (Latin has a verb reducere, present tense reduco. This is the source of the English "reduce", but has a different meaning.) Also in Italian Riduco first person present tense ofRidurre, same root of Latin Reducere.
Notes: Whether Reducio could also be used by itself rather than countering Engorgio is unknown. If it could, it would shrink normal sized items into miniature versions of themselves. References in 1992 by Arthur Weasleyto "shrinking door keys" make this seem likely.
Description: Breaks objects. In stronger usages, disintegrates them.
Seen/Mentioned: In 1995, Harry used it on one of the hedges of the Triwizard maze and ends up burning a small hole in it; in 1995, Gryffindors in Harry Potter's year referenced Parvati Patil as being able to reduce a table full of Dark Detectors to ashes, and Harry and his friends later used the spell in the Department of Mysteriesagainst the Death Eaters, shattering many Prophecy Orbs in the process; in 1997, a member of the Order of the Phoenix attempted to use this spell to break down a door which Death Eaters had blocked when the Death Eaters had cornered Dumbledore in the Lightning Struck Tower.
Etymology: English reduce, "to bring down;destroy".
Description: A spell used to make the subject release what ever it is holding or binding.
Seen/Mentioned: Used by Harry Potter against Grindylows in the second task of the Triwizard Tournament. Also used in 1997 and 1998, when Hermione used this spell to free Mrs. Cattermole from the chained chair and to free the Ukrainian Ironbelly on which they were to get out from Gringotts.]]
Etymology: Probably from the French verb relâcher ="to release, to set free", or Italian rilascio (pronounced the same way as the spell)= "I release".
Seen/Mentioned: Countless times throughout the books. Shattered objects are often described as having "flown" back together. However, substances contained in the broken objects don't get back inside. In 1995Harry smashed a bowl of murtlap essence. He could repair the bowl but the murtlap essence remained splashed to the floor.
Etymology: Latin reparo meaning "to renew" or "repair". 
Notes: This is the final spell used in the Harry Potter series. Reparo has been seen to repair non-magical items, however it seems to have an inability at repairing magical items or items that have magic placed upon them. An example is Harry's Nimbus 2000 shown in 1993 which he is told is irreparable after it is destroyed by the Whomping Willow. Wands are also irreparable, as shown in 1992 when Ron's wand snapped after he and Harry crashed onto the Hogwarts grounds. Despite his use of Spellotape, Ron's wand malfunctioned throughout the entire novel. Another example is in 1997 when Hermione tried to fix Harry's broken wand, which was snapped by her errant Blasting Curse. However, Harry repaired his wand with the Elder Wand. Since the Elder Wand is the most powerful wand in the universe, it makes sense that it would produce the most powerful Repairing Charm.
Description: Keeps Muggles away from wizarding places by causing them to remember important meetings they missed and to cause the Muggles in question to forget what they were doing.
Seen/Mentioned: Mentioned in Quidditch Through the Ages as being used to keep Muggles away from theQuidditch World Cup. Hogwarts was also said to be guarded by the Muggle-Repelling Charm. It was also used by Harry and Hermione on numerous occasions, among many other spells, to protect and hide their camp site in 1997.
Etymology: Possibly the sum of two words; The Latin rictus, meaning "The expanse of an open mouth", and semper, meaning "Always". Rictus is generally used as an expression of terror, however, "always an open mouth" would, in most cases, correspond to the act of laughing uncontrollably.
Description: A spell used when fighting a Boggart, "Riddikulus" forces the Boggart to take the appearance of an object the caster is focusing on. Best results can be achieved if the caster is focusing on something humorous, with the desire that laughter will weaken the Boggart.
Etymology: Latin word ridiculus, "laughable" (but perhaps "absurd" or "silly" in this context).
Notes: The effect of the spell seems to rely primarily on the state of mind of the caster. It doesn't actually change the shape of a boggart into something humorous, but rather whatever the caster is concentrating on at the moment of the casting, as when Neville was thinking of his grandmother's dress. Presumably, Mrs. Weasley couldn't take her mind off of her fears for her family, so the Boggart was changed into other members of the family rather than something humorous.
Description: A spell invented by Hagrid which propels row boats to a pre-set destination.
Seen/mentioned: Hagrid used the spell on the row-boats at Hogwarts, to transport the First years fromHogsmeade Station to the Boathouse. It may also have been the spell that he used to propel the row-boat that he used to take Harry from the Hut-on-the-Rock back to the mainland in 1991